General Safety Guidelines for Chain & Attachments

Peerless Industrial Group, Inc., as a manufacturer of chain, can only control the specifications of our chain products in accordance with industry and governmental standards for chain manufacturing. It would be impossible for any warning to contain all of the possible misapplications associated with the use of Peerless Industrial Group, Inc. products. Our warnings are intended to identify only those risks which are most common. The responsibility and understanding of the proper safe use and application of the products in our catalog, ultimately rest with the end user.

We are not responsible for the end user’s assembly in which our chain may be used. Failure of the product can occur due to misapplication, abuse, intentional alteration or improper maintenance. Product failure can result in property damage, personal injury or death.

Working Load Limit (WLL)

The “Working Load Limit” (rated capacity) is the maximum load that shall be applied in direct tension to an undamaged straight length of chain.

Proof Test

The “Proof Test” (manufacturing test force) is a term designating the minimum tensile force which has been applied to a chain under constantly increasing force in direct tension during the manufacturing process. These loads are manufacturing integrity tests and shall not be used as criteria for service or design purposes.

Minimum Breaking Force

The “Minimum Breaking Force” is the minimum force at which the chain during manufacture has been found by testing to break when a constantly increasing force is applied in direct tension. Breaking force values are not guarantees that all chain segments will endure these loads. This test is a manufacturer’s attribute acceptance test and shall not be used as a criteria for service or design purposes.

The Working Load Limits and the associated safety factor of each Peerless product may be affected by wear, misuse, overloading, corrosion, deformation, intentional alteration and other use conditions. Regular inspection must be conducted to determine whether use can be continued at the assigned Working Load Limit, a reduced Working Load Limit or whether the product must be withdrawn from service. The terms “Working Load Limit”, “Proof Test” and “Minimum Breaking Force” contain no implication of what load the chain will withstand if the chain is used in such conditions of abuse and misuse. Peerless Industrial Group, Inc. accepts no liability for any such abuse or misuse.

The Working Load Limit of a sling or assembly must not exceed the lowest Working Load Limit of the components in the sling or assembly. Use only Peerless Industrial Group, Inc. approved parts as replacements when servicing or repairing original Peerless Industrial Group, Inc. slings or assemblies.

USE ONLY GRADE 80 OR GRADE 100 ALLOY CHAIN AND ATTACHMENTS FOR OVERHEAD LIFTING.

PEERLESS INDUSTRIAL GROUP PRODUCTS ARE INTENDED TO BE USED AT OR BELOW THE MAXIMUM WORKING LOAD LIMITS SPECIFIED IN CONSTANTLY INCREASING FORCE APPLICATIONS UNDER DIRECT TENSION OR IN A STRAIGHT LINE PULL.

SHOCK LOADING IS PROHIBITED AND SIDE LOADING MUST BE AVOIDED, AS IT EXERTS ADDITIONAL DYNAMIC FORCES OR LOADING WHICH THE PRODUCT IS NOT DESIGNED TO ACCOMMODATE.

THE CONDITIONS INVOLVING USE IN CERTAIN ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATIONS SUCH AS UNUSUAL (HIGH OR LOW) TEMPERATURE, CHEMICAL, ETC…, CAN CAUSE CHANGES IN CHAIN PERFORMANCE.

All chains and attachments in this catalog are capable of creating sparks unless otherwise noted.

Welding Peerless Industrial Group, Inc. load support parts or products can be hazardous. Knowledge of materials, heat treatment and welding procedures are necessary for proper welding.

CONSULT PEERLESS INDUSTRIAL GROUP FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION OR QUESTIONS REGARDING THE USE AND APPLICATION OF THE PRODUCTS COVERED IN THIS CATALOG.

Temperature & Chain

Use of Grade 80 Chain Under Heat Conditions

Effect of Elevated Temperature on the Working Load Limit of Grade 80 Alloy Chain

Chains should not be used outside of the -40º F to 400º F (-40º C to 204º C) temperature range without consulting the chain manufacturer. The specific working load limit reductions for Grade 80 chains used at and after exposure to elevated temperatures have been established and are shown below.

Maximum Temperature of ChainReduction of Working Load Limit While At TemperatureReduction of Working Load Limit After Exposure to Temperature
Below 400ºNoneNone
400º10%None
500º15%None
600º20%5%
700º30%10%
800º40%15%
900º50%20%
1000º60%30%
Over 1000º•(see below)•(see below)

* OSHA 1910.184 requires all slings exposed to temperatures over 1000º F to be removed from service.

Use of Grade 100 Chain Under Heat Conditions

Effect of Elevated Temperature on the Working Load Limit of Grade 100 Alloy Chain

Chains should not be used outside of the -40º F to 400º F (-40º C to 204º C) temperature range without consulting the chain manufacturer. The specific working load limit reductions for Grade 100 chains used at and after exposure to elevated temperatures have been established and are shown below.

Maximum Temperature of ChainReduction of Working Load Limit While At TemperatureReduction of Working Load Limit After Exposure to Temperature
Below 400ºNoneNone
400º15%None
500º25%5%
600º30%10%
700º40%15%
800º50%20%
900º60%30%
1000º70%35%
Over 1000º•(see below)•(see below)

* OSHA 1910.184 requires all slings exposed to temperatures over 1000º F to be removed from service.

General Hook & Latch Guidelines

Important Safety Information – Read & Follow

  • Always inspect hook and latch before using.
  • Never use a latch that is distorted or bent.
  • Always make sure spring will force the latch against the tip of the hook.
  • Always make sure hook supports the load. Do not point load hooks–load should bear on the bowl of hook. The latch must never support the load. (See Figure 1 & 2).
  • Latches are intended to retain loose sling of devices under slack conditions.
  • Latches are not intended to be an anti-fouling device.
Latch Guidelines

Table of Chain Wear

If chain is worn to less than the minimum allowable thickness (T), remove the chain from service.

Chain Wear Illustration
Minimum Allowable Chain Link Thickness at Any Point
Nominal Chain SizeMinimum Thickness (T)
InchesmmInchesmm
7/32″5.50.1894.80
9/32”70.2396.07
5/16″80.2736.93
3/8”100.3428.69
1/2”130.44311.26
5/8”160.54613.87
3/4”200.68717.45
7/8”220.75019.05
1”260.88722.53
1-1/4”321.09127.71
REFER TO ASME B30.9

Chain Sling Safety Checklist

Check #1 – Inspections

Visually examine the sling before each use. Look for stretched, gouged, bent or worn links and components, including hooks, with open throats, cracks or distortion, if damaged, remove from service.

Check 1B: Inspections
Check 1: Inspections

Check #2 – Balance

Know the load — determine the weight, center of gravity, angle and lift and select the proper size of sling.

Check 2: Balance

Check #3 – Overload

Never overload the sling — check the working load limit on the identification tag. Always consider the effect of Angle of Lift — the tension on each leg of the sling is increased as the angle of lift, from horizontal, decreases. Use the chart in the Peerless Industrial Group, Inc. catalog or in the Peerless Chain Sling User’s Manual for this purpose.

Check 3: Overload

Check #4 – Knots, Twists & Kinks

Make sure chain is not twisted, knotted or kinked before lifting load. Slings should not be shortened with knots, bolts or other make-shift devices.

Check 4: Knots, twists & kinks

Check #5 – Sharp Edges

Protect chain with padding when lifting sharp edged loads.

Check 5: Sharp edges

Check #6 – Abrupt Movement

Lift and lower loads smoothly. Do not jerk.

Check 6: Abrupt Movement

Check #7 – High Temperatures

Do not expose alloy chain or sling to temperatures of 400°F or higher.

Check 7: Temperatures

Check #8 – Chain Care

Store slings properly on an A-Frame and protect chain slings from corrosion during storage.

Check 8: Chain Care

Below-the-Hook & Material Handling Equipment

This information consists of general guidelines only.  Refer to current OSHA, ANSI & ASME standards for complete specifications.

INDUSTRY STANDARDS

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) developed standards that  apply specifically to the devices Peerless Industrial Group, Inc. designs and manufacturers. These standards serve as a guide to government authorities, manufacturers, purchasers and operators of below-the-hook lifting devices.

ASME B30.20-2018

Provides detailed information on the classifications, marking, construction, installation, inspection, testing, maintenance and operation of below-the-hook lifting devices.

ASME BTH-1-2017

Provides detailed information on the design criteria of below-the-hook lifting devices.

MARKINGS & IDENTIFICATION

beam plate  

The rated load of the lifting device is visibly marked on the main structure of the device, as well as on a tag  attached to the lifter.  If the below-the-hook lifting device consists of individually detachable lifters, then each of the individual lifters shall be marked and tagged with their individual rated loads.

All Peerless Industrial Group, Inc.  below-the-hook lifting devices are tagged with the following information:

  • Manufacturer’s name  and address
  • Serial number
  • Lifter weight,  if over 100 lbs. (45 kg)
  • Cold current  (amps) (when applicable)
  • Rated voltage (when applicable)
  • Rated load
  • Manufacture date
  • ASME BTH-1 Design category
  • ASME BTH-1 Service class

GENERAL CONSTRUCTION

All Peerless structural  and mechanical  lifting devices are designed  and manufactured by qualified personnel.  Peerless designs  are  in accordance with ASME BTH-1 and take into consideration the stresses that  result  from  the  application  of  the  rated  load along  with  the  weight  of the  actual  lifter and  are designed to ASME BTH-1 Design Category B. Service Class is determined by taking into consideration the fatigue  life criteria based  on  the  expected  number of load cycles.

DESIGN CATEGORY

Design category B shall be utilized when the size, scale and variation of loads applied to the lifter are not always predictable or clearly defined and where the  environmental and loading conditions vary or could be severe.

SERVICE CLASS

Service Class is determined by the specified fatigue life of the lifter.

  • Service Class 0 is 0 to 20,000 load cycles.
  • Service Class 1 is 20,001 to 100,000 load cycles.
  • Service Class 2 is 100,001 to 500,000 load cycles.
  • Service Class 3 is 500,001 to 2,000,000 load cycles.
  • Service Class 4 is over 2,000,000 load cycles

SERVICE CLASS LIFE

Cycles Per DayDesired Life (Years)
15102030
500011
1000112
2501122
5001223
10012233
20012334
30023344
75023444
1,00023444

All welding shall be in accordance with AWS D14.1/D14M and ASME BTH-1.

Exposed moving parts such as gears, projecting shafts and chain drives that constitute a hazard under normal operating conditions are guarded.  All welding shall be in accordance with ANSI/AWS D14.1 and ASME BTH-1.

Electrical equipment and wiring shall comply with ANSI/NFPA 70 and ASME BTH-1.

FOR INFORMATION ON MODIFICATIONS OR REPAIRS TO YOUR LIFTING DEVICE, CONTACT PEERLESS INDUSTRIAL GROUP TO ENSURE COMPLIANCE WITH THE CURRENT ASME STANDARDS.

PROOF TEST

100% OF ALL PEERLESS BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES ARE PROOF-TESTED TO 125% CAPACITY AND CERTIFICATES SUPPLIED AT NO ADDITIONAL CHARGE.

Requirements & Recommendations:

Requirements of the ASME standard are noted by the word shall.  Recommendations of the ASME standard are noted by the word should.