Industrial Slings: Occupational Safety and Health Standards

EXCERPT FROM FEDERAL REGISTER DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Occupational Safety and Health Administration SECTION NO. 1910.184 (as of 5/2013)

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§ 1910.184 Slings

(a) Scope. This section applies to slings used in conjunction with other material handling equipment for the movement of material by hoisting, in employments covered by this Part. The types of slings covered are those made from allow steel chain, wire rope, metal mesh, natural or synthetic fiber rope (conventional three strand construction), and synthetic web (nylon, polyester, and polypropylene).

(b) Definitions.

“Angle of loading” is the inclination of a leg or branch of a sling measured from the horizontal or vertical plane as shown in Fig. N-184-5; provided that an angle of loading of five degrees or less from the vertical may be considered a vertical angle of loading.

“Basket hitch” is a sling configuration whereby the sling is passed under the load and has both ends, end attachments, eyes or handles on the hook or a single master link.

“Braided wire rope” is a wire rope formed by plaiting component wire ropes.

“Braided wire rope sling” is a sling composed of multiple wire rope legs with the top ends gathered in a fitting that goes over the lifting hook.

“Cable laid endless sling-mechanical joint” is a wire rope sling made endless by joining the ends of a single length of cable laid rope with one or more metallic fittings.

“Cable laid grommet-hand tucked” is an endless wire rope sling made from one length of rope wrapped six times around a core formed by hand tucking the ends of the rope inside the six wraps.

“Cable laid rope” is a wire rope composed of six wire ropes wrapped around a fiber or wire rope core.

“Cable laid rope sling-mechanical joint” is a wire rope sling made from a cable laid rope with eyes fabricated by pressing or swaging one or more metal sleeves over the rope junction.

“Choker hitch” is a sling configuration with one end of the sling passing under the load and through an end attachment, handle or eye on the other end of the sling.

“Coating” is an elastomer or other suitable material applied to a sling or to a sling component to impart desirable properties.

“Cross rod” is a wire used to join spirals of metal mesh to form a complete fabric. (See Fig. N-184-2.)

“Designated” means selected or assigned by the employer or the employer’s representative as being qualified to perform specific duties.

“Equivalent entity” is a person or organization (including an employer) which, by possession of equipment, technical knowledge and skills, can perform with equal competence the same repairs and tests as the person or organization with which it is equated.

“Fabric (metal mesh)” is the flexible portion of a metal mesh sling consisting of a series of transverse coils and cross rods.

“Female handle (choker)” is a handle with a handle eye and a slot of such dimension as to permit passage of a male handle thereby allowing the use of metal mesh sling in a choker hitch.

“Handle” is a terminal fitting to which metal mesh fabric is attached. (See Fig. N-184-1.)

“Handle eye” is an opening in a handle of a metal mesh sling shaped to accept a hook, shackle or other lifting device. (See Fig. N-184-1.)

“Hitch” is a sling configuration whereby the sling is fastened to an object or load, either directly to it or around it.

“Link” is a single ring of a chain.

“Male handle (triangle)” is a handle with a handle eye.

“Master coupling link” is an alloy steel welded coupling link used as an intermediate link to join alloy steel chain to master links. (See Fig. N-184-3.)

“Master link” or “gathering ring” is a forged or welded steel link used to support all members (legs) or an alloy steel chain sling or wire rope sling. (See Fig. N-184-3.)

“Mechanical coupling link” is a nonwelded, mechanically closed steel link used to attach master links, hooks, etc., to alloy steel chain.

FIGURE N-184-1 METAL MESH SLING (TYPICAL) (For Figure N-184-1, Click Here)

FIGURE N-184-2 METAL MESH CONSTRUCTION (For Figure N-184-2, Click Here)

FIGURE N-184-3 MAJOR COMPONENTS OF A QUADRUPLE SLING (For Figure N-184-3, Click Here)

“Proof load” is the load applied in performance of a proof test.

“Proof test” is a nondestructive tension test performed by the sling manufacturer or an equivalent entity to verify construction and workmanship of a sling.

“Rated capacity” or “working load limit” is the maximum working load permitted by the provisions of this section.

“Reach” is the effective length of an alloy steel chain sling measured from the top bearing surface of the upper terminal component to the bottom bearing surface of the lower terminal component.

“Selvage edge” is the finished edge of synthetic webbing designed to prevent unraveling.

“Sling” is an assembly which connects the load to the material handling equipment.

“Sling manufacturer” is a person or organization that assembles sling components into their final form for sale to users.

“Spiral” is a single transverse coil that is the basic element from which metal mesh is fabricated. (See Fig. N-184-2.)

“Strand laid endless sling-mechanical joint” is a wire rope sling made endless from one length of rope with the ends joined by one or more metallic fittings.

“Strand laid grommet-hand tucked” is an endless wire rope sling made from one length of strand wrapped six times around a core formed by hand tucking the ends of the strand inside the six wraps.

“Strand laid rope” is a wire rope made with strands (usually six or eight) wrapped around a fiber core, wire strand core, or independent wire rope core (IWRC).

“Vertical hitch” is a method of supporting a load by a single, vertical part or leg of the sling. (See Fig. N-184-4.)

1910.184(c)

Safe operating practices. Whenever any sling is used, the following practices shall be observed:

1910.184(c)(1) Slings that are damaged or defective shall not be used.

1910.184(c)(2) Slings shall not be shortened with knots or bolts or other makeshift devices.

1910.184(c)(3) Sling legs shall not be kinked.

1910.184(c)(4) Slings shall not be loaded in excess of their rated capacities.

1910.184(c)(5) Slings used in a basket hitch shall have the loads balanced to prevent slippage.

1910.184(c)(6) Slings shall be securely attached to their loads.

1910.184(c)(7) Slings shall be padded or protected from the sharp edges of their loads.

1910.184(c)(8) Suspended loads shall be kept clear of all obstructions.

1910.184(c)(9) All employees shall be kept clear of loads about to be lifted and of suspended loads.

1910.184(c)(10) Hands or fingers shall not be placed between the sling and its load while the sling is being tightened around the load.

1910.184(c)(11) Shock loading is prohibited.

1910.184(c)(12) A sling shall not be pulled from under a load when the load is resting on the sling.

1910.184(c)(13) Employers must not load a sling in excess of its recommended safe working load as prescribed by the sling manufacturer on the identification markings permanently affixed to the sling.

1910.184(c)(14) Employers must not use slings without affixed and legible identification markings.

1910.184(d)

Inspections. Each day before being used, the sling and all fastenings and attachments shall be inspected for damage or defects by a competent person designated by the employer. Additional inspections shall be performed during sling use, where service conditions warrant. Damaged or defective slings shall be immediately removed from service.

1910.184(e)

Alloy steel chain slings.

1910.184(e)(1)

Sling identification. Alloy steel chain slings shall have permanently affixed durable identification stating size, grade, rated capacity, and reach.

1910.184(e)(2)

Attachments.

1910.184(e)(2)(i)

Hooks, rings, oblong links, pear shaped links, welded or mechanical coupling links or other attachments shall have a rated capacity at least equal to that of the alloy steel chain with which they are used or the sling shall not be used in excess of the rated capacity of the weakest component.

1910.184(e)(2)(ii)

Makeshift links or fasteners formed from bolts or rods, or other such attachments, shall not be used.

1910.184(e)(3)

Inspections.

1910.184(e)(3)(i)

In addition to the inspection required by paragraph (d) of this section, a thorough periodic inspection of alloy steel chain slings in use shall be made on a regular basis, to be determined on the basis of (A) frequency of sling use; (B) severity of service conditions; (C) nature of lifts being made; and (D) experience gained on the service life of slings used in similar circumstances. Such inspections shall in no event be at intervals greater than once every 12 months.

1910.184(e)(3)(ii)

The employer shall make and maintain a record of the most recent month in which each alloy steel chain sling was thoroughly inspected, and shall make such record available for examination.

1910.184(e)(3)(iii) The thorough inspection of alloy steel chain slings shall be performed by a competent person designated by the employer, and shall include a thorough inspection for wear, defective welds, deformation and increase in length. Where such defects or deterioration are present, the sling shall be immediately removed from service.

1910.184(e)(4)

Proof testing. The employer shall ensure that before use, each new, repaired, or reconditioned alloy steel chain sling, including all welded components in the sling assembly, shall be proof tested by the sling manufacturer or equivalent entity, in accordance with paragraph 5.2 of the American Society of Testing and Materials Specification A391-65 (ANSI G61.1-1968). The employer shall retain a certificate of the proof test and shall make it available
for examination.

1910.184(e)(5)

Sling use. Alloy steel chain slings shall not be used with loads in excess of the rated capacities prescribed in Table N-184-1. Slings not included in this table shall be used only in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.

1910.184(e)(6)

Safe operating temperatures. Alloy steel chain slings shall be permanently removed from service if they are heated above 1000°F. When exposed to service temperatures in excess of 600°F, maximum working load limits permitted by the chain manufacturer in accordance with the chain or sling manufacturer’s recommendations.

1910.184(e)(7)

Repairing and reconditioning alloy steel chain slings.

1910.184(e)(7)(1)

Worn or damaged alloy steel chain slings or attachments shall not be used until repaired. When welding or heat treating is performed, slings shall not be used unless repaired, reconditioned and proof tested by the sling manufacturer or an equivalent entity.

1910.184(e)(7)(ii)

Mechanical coupling links or low carbon steel repair links shall not be used to repair broken lengths of chain.

1910.184(e)(8)

Effects of wear. If the chain size at any point of any links is less than that stated in Table N-184-6, the sling shall be removed from service.

 

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